National Association of Mining History Organisations (NAMHO) Newsletter
Issue 36, Summer 1999

Editor - Wes Taylor;
 18 Station Lane, Walton on Trent, Swadlingcote, Derbys. DE12 8NA

It is thought that the contents of the NAMHO Newsletter are not circulated
within all Member Organisations as well as was expected.  The reasons for
this are numerous and complex ranging from practicalities, size of the
member organisation and multiple memberships by individuals.  It is also
impractical for NAMHO to send a copy to all members of the Member Organisations.
It has been decided that to try and improve the circulation, the current
Newsletter will be added to the NAMHO web site which is operated on our
behalf by Adrian Pearce.  In addition, Peter Claughton will put the current
Newsletter on the Mining History List.

1.   NAMHO '99 Conference
Don't forget to book your place at the next NAMHO Conference which will be
held in the Forest of Dean on
24 to 27 September 1999.  Details of the Conference were circulated with the
last Newsletter.  The theme of the Conference will be "Free Mining and the
Mines of the Forest of Dean and Other Traditional British Mining Rights and
For further information please contact John Hine, The Grottage, 2 Cullis
Lane, Coleford, Gloucester,  GL16 7QF.  Tel:- 01594 833217.

2.    INTERnational NAMHO 2000
This, the 21st NAMHO Annual National Event will be held on 14 to 18 July
2000.  It will be hosted by Carn Brea Mining Society and Camborne School of
Mines and will be based in Truro.
It is expected that the acceptance of bookings will be launched at the NAMHO
'99 Conference.  Anyone requiring further information should contact
Lawrence Holmes, Rivergarth, Bar Meadows, Malpas, Truro, Cornwall,
TR1 1SS.  Tel:-  01872 278234.

The year 1999 sees a number of significant anniversaries within NAMHO and
it's member organisations.
NAMHO itself is 20 years old this year.
The Welsh Mines Society has also celebrated its 20th Birthday. The 20th
Anniversary Meet was held in June and a special publication commemorating
the First Twenty Years has been produced.
The Peak District Mines Historical Society also celebrated its 40th Birthday
in June.  There was a weekend of presentations, surface and underground
trips and a social gathering, complete with a nostalgic slide show.
Professor W S (Bill) Sarjeant, a founding member of the Society, travelled
from Saskatchewan, Canada, to join in the celebrations.
If any other member organisations are celebrating a significant birthday in
the near future, please let the Editor know so that it can be reported in
future editions of the Newsletter..

About 10 years ago the Government (through the Dept
of Environment) commissioned a series of national reviews which considered
landsliding, foundation conditions, erosion, deposition, flooding natural
underground cavities, natural contamination and mining stability.  NAMHO and
some of its member organisations were involved in the last three of these -
the Ove Arup mining stability being the one which had greatest impact.  Some
of the findings have been implemented through Planning Policy Guidance,
Mineral Planning Guidance and Regional Planning Guidance Notes circulated to
local authorities and others who make decisions on proposed developments.
NAMHO have been informed that there is now "a need to consolidate the
results and to interpret and present them in
forms which can be readily used in preparing and monitoring the
effectiveness of National and Regional Planning
Guidance" and contractors are being sought who have an
interest in undertaking this work.
How does all of this affect mining  history societies?  To
put it simply there is great pressure from many directions to remove
"eyesores", make derelict land "safe"; decontaminate waste tips, make work
for the consultants and contractors, remove remains of old mines and the
mining heritage, fill in adits and cavities, block off shafts, put fences
around reclaimed sites and, in a nutshell, take away everything of interest
to our members unless someone speaks out and shows those that  matter that
there are alternative uses and values.  That is the work of NAMHO.
Members of NAMHO have in the past worked with the commissioned consultants,
individual officers have attended meetings in London of  "Steering Groups"
at their own expense and individuals have perused through the masses of
paper produced, checking, and rechecking, to see  that our interests are
protected.  This is the unseen work of NAMHO.  It is not finished yet for,
as stated above, more work is constantly coming in our direction.  The
pressures are still there.  NAMHO's work still continues.
If anyone wants a job on these projects outlined above, either as a
consultant or contractor (were the pay is reasonable and the competition is
strong), as a member of steering groups (travel, time and postage at own
expense), or vetting and commenting on papers (at own expense), then please
contact the Secretary.
D of E Projects in which NAMHO was directly involved are:-
1.  The Treatment of Mine Shafts and Adits - published 1988.
2.  Methods of  Compilation, Storage and Retrieval of
     Data on Disused Nine Workings - published 1988.
3.  Review of Mining Instability in Great Britain -   published 1990.
4.  Review of the Significance of Natural Contamination  to Planning and
Development (heavy metals, oil, gases etc) - published 1996.
5.  Members were also involved in the study of natural underground cavities.
6.  Proposed study - The Consolidation and Interpretation of the
Effectiveness etc of the above studies 1-4.
A series of four books drawing upon the above studies    was published by
DETR in June 1998.  These are in the series "Environmental Geology in Land
Use Planning".  They are:-
1.  "Advise for Planners and Developers".  Cost £5.00.
2.  "Emerging Issues".  Cost £15.00.
3.  "A Guide to Good Practice".  Cost £20.00.
4.  "Sources of Earth Science Information".  Cost £10.00.
Ivor Brown

1.  "IN THE BEWICK VEIN - The Story of a Northumberland Lead Mine" by Susan

The veins at the Langley Barony Mine, near Haydon
Bridge, were tried in the 18th century, but it was not until 1871 that
Thomas John Bewick proved their true potential.
Unlike many veins in the North Pennines, mineralisation here persisted over
a depth of around 57 fathoms and, when the mine closed in 1893, it had
produced 40,761 tons of lead concentrates.
The section covering the history and layout of the mines, which are centred
on Honeycrook Burn, is supplemented by one giving useful biographical notes
on T J Bewick and his later association with C.A. Moreing in founding an
international firm of consulting mining engineers.
The author set out to write at a level suitable for "people with no prior
knowledge of the lead industry" and has generally succeeded. Her sections on
the production and washing of lead ore and the working conditions at the
mines work well and are illustrated with appropriate photographs. It is,
however, a pity that a few dubious interpretations and errors were not
spotted. For example, the 3 oz of silver per ton of ore is described as
'significant'. This low figure is most probably based on analytical results
published in the annual mineral statistics and would hardly have covered the
expense of recovery. Elsewhere, impeller buddles become propellor (sic)
buddles and, in a confusing merging of terms, we get plunger lift pumps! We
are also told that buddles are named after John Buddle (1773-1843), but
Agricola depicts them in 1556 and they were used in Britain from at least a
similar time.
"In the Bewick Vein" is a good introduction to this seldom visited mine and
has 70 pp, 16 figures (5 coloured), 15 plates. It costs £4.95 (plus 85p p&p)
and is available from Honeycrook Press, Joicey Shaft Cottage, Haydon Bridge,
Northumberland, NE47 6NF or e-mail:-
Mike Gill

2.  "Geology of the Western Front 1914-1918" by Dr Peter Doyle is No 61 in
the Geologist's Association Guides.
The author has combined a lifelong interest in military history with a
geological training to produce the book.  There are numerous references to
the difficulties with water logged trenches but this is the first account,
in English, to explain the geological and geomorphologic aspects of the
The author handles the "delicate" subject with respect.  He shows
sensitivity to the area and the itineraries are not intrusive upon the
battlefields or cemeteries.
The book is well illustrated with black and white
photographs, maps and line drawings.  The cost is £12.00.
Down to Earth

1.  "Hafodlas Slate Quarry, Betws y Coed" by G R Jones.  A4-230 pages, 4
maps, 13 production Analysis Graphs, 37 detailed survey drawings, 60 plates.
ISBN 0 9533692 0 X.  Cost £12.50, p&p £2.50.
The Hafodlas story began in 1855 when the initial exploration was carried
out be C E Spooner of Ffestiniog Railway fame and his brother James S.
Spooner who built the Talyllyn Railway. In 1860 they were joined by other
eminent engineers, William Fothergill Cooke of electric telegraph fame,
Hedworth Lee who engineered the Chester and Holyhead Railway and Sir Daniel
Gooch of the Great Western Railway whose son Henry became manager of the
quarry.  The impressive remains of the remarkable and unique architecture of
this period have largely survived, while later mills of traditional
construction have all but disappeared. The mills were equipped with a
plethora of machines - fearsome great saws and planers by George Hunter,
ordinary circular saws, sand saws and cranes, while some of the incline
haulage was operated by highly innovative systems.
Part 1 of the book covers the history and development of the quarry from
1855 to its final closure in 1929, with an analysis of the production and
men employed.
Part 2 assesses and interprets the site remains, and is supported by 37
detailed drawings and 60 photographs. The work, which is published in its
entirety, was awarded the prestigious Association for Industrial Archaeology
1997 Fieldwork and Recording Award.
Griff Jones' book on the Slate Quarry at Hafodlas is a model study of
archaeological and architectural recording in an internationally important
industry. It will surely become to be regarded as a classic of industrial
archaeological practice. The standard of the readily understandable drawings
is remarkable and also reflects the interpretive skills, and the wealth of
understanding of slate-industry processes and techniques, of the five
members of Fforwm Plas Tanybwlch who spent no less than 7,500 hours at this
nationally significant site. They have set an example for such work for
others to try and emulate. Few other groups have brought such a fund of
knowledge to such a task and conveyed the results in drawings that are a
delight to peruse, and then backed it up with perceptive and informative
archival research and writing.
The written sources for the slate industry, for long the economic lifeblood
of Snowdonia, have hitherto received some attention from scholars, but very
little work on its archaeology has been published.  Its merits lie in its
comprehensive coverage of the documentary evidence, its perceptive
interpretation of the archaeology, and most especially in its large number
of record drawings of superlative quality. That Griff has no formal
qualifications is quite irrelevant, for he has achieved a remarkably
competent result of which any professional could be proud.

2.  "Thirlmere Mines and the Drowning of  the Valley" by Ian Tyler.
BlueRock Publications 1999.  273pp, 132 plans and photographs.  Soft backed.
Cost £14.99, p&p £2.50.
This book tells the story of the struggle for survival in the mines, of the
constant driving deeper and deeper into barren ground, and the heartbreaking
frustration as the veins yielded so little for so much toil.  It also tells
of the story of mighty Manchester, the men of the Waterworks Committee who
greased the right palms, the hundreds of navvies who poured into the vale,
the soup kitchens in winter and the gradual destruction of Thirlmere.

At the last Council Meeting it was suggested that a list of significant
articles published in member organisation Newsletters be published.  It was
agreed that a "significant" article would be one which is an A4 page or more
long.  The contents of this list, the first list to be published, has been
determined by the Newsletters that have been received by the Hon
Secretary/Editor in recent months.
The success of publishing the list is dependant upon the Hon
Secretary/Editor receiving copies of your Newsletters.  I am always grateful
to receive copies of Newsletters but I know that I am not on the mailing
list of all Newsletters published.  So, all you member organisation editors,
please send me copies of your Newsletters and have details of all of the
significant articles circulated throughout NAMHO.
Recent articles received are:-

Grosvenor Caving Club No 94 June 1999
 Parys Mountain, Anglesey
Journal of the Great Orme Exploration Society No 1, 1999
 Tripping around the Baltic in a Landrover
 Mine memories by the aged secretary
 Winter Quarters - description of RNR annual       training on Gibraltar
 Bats underground
 Common caving knots
 The Hornby - report on the wreck of the Hornby on      the Great Orme in 1824.
 Samuel Worthington - Cheshire business man and      entrepreneur.
Peak District Mines Historical Society - Newsletter, No 90, April 1999
 The French Connection - Description of underground war sites in northern
France and a report of a Society  meet in that area.
Peak District Mines Historical Society - Mining History
 Vol 13, No 6, Winter 1998
 Early Gunpowder Work in Cromford Sough
 Primitive Mining Tools from Temberlini
 Aspects of Late 17C Lead Industry in Wirksworth as revealed in the Courts
 Oil and Mining Museums in Texas
 Spanish Mining Museum at La Union
 Ford Mine, Grindon, Staffs
 Surface remains at New Venture Mine
 James Watt's Steam Engine for Leadhills Mine
 Brief guide to Froth Flotation
 Early Gold Mining in Japan: More Sado Scrolls
 Ore Dressing in the Manifold Valley
 Washing Floors at Winster Pitts
Plymouth Caving Group Newsletter No 131
 AGM Report
 Matienzo 1996-1998 (Part 2) - Pt 2 of article describing caves and caving
explored by PCG members in northern Spain over past few years
 Penberthy Croft, St Hilary, Cornwall - description of attempted recovery of
motor vehicle from the shaft.
Subterranea Britannica No 21, 1999
 Tunnels under Tonbridge, Kent - An extract from      "Tonbridge Legends", 1866
 Burlington and Corsham Computer Centre
 Some WW11 Air Raid Shelters
 Short notes on the Box/Bath area
Welsh Mines Preservation Trust June 1999
 Report of the activities of the Trust
Welsh Mines Society - Special publication
 The First Twenty Years 1979-1999

The April 1999 edition of the National Geographic Magazine contains a
feature on early copper mining in Israel and Jordan.
PDMHS Newsletter

It has been announced that the Annesley-Bentink Colliery in Nottinghamshire
is to close.  This colliery, at 130 years old, is the oldest working pit in
Britain.  The colliery is owned by Midland Mining and they have had problems
in producing coal at a cost which is profitable.

There is concern over the possibility of serious pollution of the River
Coquet and its tributaries as a result of rising water levels in the
abandoned workings of the Whittle Colliery, near Alnwick.  Water levels are
currently being monitored.  The problem has received considerable publicity
in the local press and on television.
Recent serious flooding in the Spittal area of Berwick-upon-Tweed appears to
have resulted from an overflow of water from flooded coal workings in the
Scremerston area.  Similar potential hazards are associated with abandoned
mine workings throughout Northumberland.
Whereas the risks and consequences of mine water and
gas reaching the surface from abandoned workings are relatively well known,
less well understood problems may also occur. Rising water levels may cause
serious surface instability and may, in certain circumstances, cause
movement along faults. Rising water levels may also result in significant
changes to the permeability of the rocks adjacent to the old workings and it
may not be possible to achieve controlled drainage of water from known
shafts and adits. Considerable areas of land slipped ground have recently
been identified in the area underlain by the White Colliery workings.
Although apparently stable under present conditions, rising groundwater
levels could initiate further slippage. There is thus a real risk to ground
stability above mine workings and perhaps over substantial adjoining areas
not directly undermined. Such instability could result in damage to land,
property and natural drainage, as well as to gas, water and sewer pipes and
other services.

History was made on the 31 January 1999. On a misty Sunday in the eastern
outskirts of Leeds the St Aidans 1150-B walked 48.8 metres, turned through
90 degrees, and gently lowered its boom. After starting life in South
Milwaukee, Winconsin, and previously working in West Virginia, South Wales
and the English Midlands as well as in Yorkshire, it reached its final
location with consummate ease and - if you can say this of a machine - with
dignity.  With it moved the memories of all those who had, over half a
century, designed, manufactured, erected, dismantled and re-erected,
operated and maintained and, in recent times, worked to save it from the
ignoble end of a cutting torch and scrap.
Beeby Plant Repairs of Retford, who had won the contract for the move, had
spent the previous two weeks preparing the machine.  In conjunction with
associated electrical contractors they had devised a most unusual and
impressive, possibly unique, way of moving the 1,200 ton walking dragline by
remote control.  Only the minimum essential motors were  re-activated to
raise the boom, walk and slew the machine using power from two small,
temporary, on-board generators and a very large trailer-mounted generator
parked alongside. The new system was controlled by an outside operator using
a hand-held console wired into the machine.
During the previous week the boom had been raised, with some assistance from
cranes, and fixed with three of its four pendants and the walking and
slewing mechanisms tested. Around 10.00am on the Sunday the first steps were
taken and soon the 1150-B was crossing the internal road towards the level
area prepared for its permanent display. By about mid-day the machine had
arrived at its destination, swung through 90 degrees and was ready to lower
its boom unaided. There had been only two delays; one while a hydraulic
excavator was brought in to move a cabin which had obstructed the machine as
it very slightly veered off its intended path, and another when a fork-lift
had to move another cabin which was just preventing the slewing.
Walking draglines have previously been brought back to working order after
many years of idleness and some have walked great distances.  Moving St.
Aidan's 1150-B was different, it walked only a few metres but it is probably
the only walking dragline to be preserved in the world.
Congratulations all round, particularly to RJB Mining, Miller Contractors,
Leeds City Council, Beeby Plant Repairs, the "Friends", finance contributors
and all those other organisations and individuals who, directly or
indirectly, have contributed to the project's success.
I J Brown

As a celebration of the 125 years life of the Protector Lamp and Lighting Co
Ltd, a book which tells the story of the Company has been published.  In
addition, an exhibition to illustrate the life of the Company will be on
display in northern England.  Mr Prestwich's Improvement has been based on
the unique archive of the Company.  It captures the ingredients of Victorian
Ingenuity and Edwardian Eccentricity and Pioneering Spirit.
Joseph Prestwich (1851-1919) joined the Company as a commission only agent.
As a result of his obsession to produce the ultimate safe miner's lamp, and
the success he achieved, he ultimately became Managing Director of the Company.
The book tells how the Company lurched from the brink of bankruptcy to the
zenith of prosperity and back again.
The exhibition provides a rare opportunity to see images spanning the 125
years of the Company.  Prints from Victorian and Edwardian glass plates
contrast with a contemporary account of the Company and the coal mining
The exhibition is on display at the National Coal Mining Museum until 23
July 1999 and at the Lancashire Mining Museum from 12 November - 19 December

The collaboration between Tempus and NAMHO proceeds apace, moving towards
what should be a unique national collection of regional mining history
publications.  Unique because of the balance between informed, educated,
keenly researched detail and general interest, and because of Tempus' own
publishing programme, which maintains quality across a large range of titles
while keeping prices low, and especially for its aim of covering every
significant mining area in the country
At the present moment, two NAMHO-affiliated titles are awaiting publication
- The East Shropshire Coalfield, by Ivor Brown, and Peak District Mining and
Quarrying, by Lynn Willies and Harry Parker. These books will be released
simultaneously in late July/early August and will retail at £9.99each.
With NAMHO's assistance in finding authors, we hope to publish ten more
Tempus/NAMHO titles before the end of the year 2000. The series will by this
point have established its position as the new pictorial historical
reference source, which will be used for years to come.
In addition to the  requirements for ten compilers to produce "picture
books" for mining regions by the end of 2000, the publishers are now so
confident of success that they have asked NAMHO to find authors for more
descriptive, higher priced books, for each major mining area.  It is
envisaged that these books will be illustrated, 160 or 196 page books of
about 60,000 words with colour plates.  It is expected that they will retail
at £15 - £24 each.  Authors will have an individual royalty contract with
the publishers.
If you are interested, or know someone who would be interested, in preparing
such a book either alone or
in collaboration with others, then please contact the
NAMHO Secretary, Wes Taylor, as soon as possible.

The report of H M Inspector of Mines records one "major injury" accident
during the year 1997/8.  In the previous year four "major injuries" were
recorded, including two to members of the public.  Nearly all the "major
injuries" recorded have been either broken bones or serious cuts involving
hospital stays caused by slipping or stumbling.
I J Brown

The sale of South Crofty tin mine to Wilf Hughes has stalled.  David
Giddings, Managing Director of South Crofty PLC, alleges that Mr Hughes'
company is unwilling or unable to come up with the money to acquire the mine.
There is now an air of uncertainty over the re-opening of the mine.  Work
that was ongoing to re-open the mine stopped at the end of April.  Wilf
Hughes is still adamant that he will obtain sufficient funding to complete
the purchase of South Crofty and re-open the mine
Western Morning News

NAMHO member Rosevale Mine has recently been featured in the Western Morning
News and the West Briton.  The features relate to the decision of the
leaseholders, Tony Bennett and Mike Shipp to open the mine to members of the
public and thus generate an income which will be used to develop the mine
There is very little recorded history of the mine but it is believed that it
was opened in the early 1700's when a three foot wide vein was exploited.
In 1906 the mine was bought by a syndicate who used an early mechanical
tunnelling machine to develop a level below the original drivage.  By 1916
Rosevale was closed and abandoned.  In 1974 the lease was acquired by Tony
and Mike and they have spent the intervening years developing it into an
authentic working tin mine.

Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the breath of tourists
threaten to destroy records of European rainfall hidden in limestone caves.
Like trees, the spectacular stalactites, stalagmites and drip curtains in
caves have growth rings whose chemical makeup provides a clue to past
climates.  A technique has been developed for revealing the past moisture
levels of soils by analysing light passing through the rings.  Using this
technique a record of European rainfall over the past millennium can be
This valuable record may be in danger because stalagmites in British caves
are corroding away.  This is caused by rising carbon dioxide (CO2) levels
inside the caves.  The CO2 in the breath of the many visitors to show mines
can lead to a significant increase of the levels of the gas in poorly
ventilated caves, reversing the process that forms the limestone structures.
Stalactites and stalagmites are created when calcium carbonate precipitates
from water dripping inside the cave.  Water percolating through the soil
above the cave dissolves CO2 from its surroundings, forming carbonic acid
that strips calcium carbonate from limestone rocks. When the water reaches
the cave, however, it loses CO2 to the cave air, reducing its ability to
carry the mineral.  But, elevated levels of CO2 in cave air can upset this
process.  Less calcite will be deposited if the water loses less CO2 when it
reaches equilibrium with the cave air, slowing the growth of the structures.
Worse still, if levels are sufficiently high, the water will dissolve CO2
from the cave air, forming more acid that erodes the limestone structures
rather than building them.  The risk is greatest in caves where the calcium
content of the water is low.  The majority of British caves fall into this
It is not only tourist attractions that are at risk.  The predicted doubling
of atmospheric CO2 within the next century could be sufficient to destroy
stalagmites in pristine caves.  It has been noted that the stalagmites in
Uamh an Tartair in Northwest Scotland, some of which may be 10,000 years
old, do not appear to have grown over the past hundred years or so.
New Scientist

A new initiative to stabilise unsafe mines, the Land Stabilisation
Programme, was launched in March 1999 by the Regions and Regeneration
Minister, Richard Caborn.
The programme will be administered by English Partnerships and will make
finance available to local and National Park authorities to stabilize areas
which  have been left in a hazardous condition by non-coal mine workings.
Is this a further threat to the mining heritage of our country?

Paul Sowan of Subterranea Britanica has a data base containing details of
the many aspects of Industrial Archaeology, not just mining and other holes
in the ground.  Besides having details of the title, author, publication
details, ISBN, availability and cost, the data base contains an abstract of
the publication.  A sample of recent titles on the data base is shown below:-

Thirlmere Mines and the Drowning of the Valley
Geology of the Dodwell Hill Quarries,      Whittington, Glos.
Les Souterrains de Pontoise.
Tramways and Railways of John Knowles (Wooden
Box) Ltd.
The Kirkleattham Iron Stone Company.
Speech House Colliery

Anyone who is interested in obtaining further information on the contents of
this database should contact Paul via the NAMHO Secretary.

English Heritage have agreed to part finance the restoration  of the
Chatterley Whitfield site.  They are providing £1m to save this historic
colliery.  The money will be used to restore the currently listed buildings
as part of a plan for the restoration of the site
At the moment, there are no plans to re-open the site as a museum.

The International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage
Millennium Congress will be held 30 August - 7 September 2000.  The Congress
will be based in London for 4 days and then there will be a choice of tours
to either Cornwall, Wales or Scotland.  The tours to Cornwall and Wales will
contain a significant bias towards mining.
The cost of attending this Congress will be significant.
Further information is available from:- TICCIH2000 Congress Administrator,
42 Devonshire Rd, Cambridge, CB1 2BL.  Tel:- 01223 323437.

The library of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall was sold on 22
February 1999.  The Society, which is based at Penzance, was formed in 1814.
When formed the Society discouraged membership from within the local mining
community, apparently for social reasons.  It is believed that this factor
contributed to its failure to fulfil its early promise.
The Society did, however, build up an outstanding library collection.  The
dispersal and break up of the collection, which has followed the sale of
other valuable collections in recent years, has provoked a further debate by
academics and others about the loss of such valuable relics of a past era.

  Registered Charity No 297301
Registered Office, c/o Peak District Mining Museum, The Pavilion, South
Parade, Matlock Bath, Matlock, Derbyshire, DE4 3NR.
  Tel:-  Matlock (01629) 583834.

The contents of this publication are in the public domain.  There is no
restriction on the publication of articles from this Newsletter provided
acknowledgement of the source is made in any subsequent  publication.
Opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect the opinion of the National Association of Mining
History Organisations. Copy submitted  for  publication is not checked by
the Editor  for accuracy.

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